Major Public Blockchains

A public blockchain is one where anyone is free to join and participate in the core activities of the blockchain network. Anyone can read, write, and audit the ongoing activities on a public blockchain, which helps achieve the self-governed, decentralized nature often touted when blockchain is discussed.

Here are some major public blockchain except Bitcoin and Ethereum:

BNB Chain (BNB): Developed by Binance, BNB Chain is known for its high transaction throughput and compatibility with Ethereum's tools, making it a favored choice for developers. Initially launched as Binance Smart Chain, it combines DeFi and other applications under a dual-chain architecture. It is particularly noted for its performance and low transaction fees.

Solana (SOL): Known for its incredible speed and high throughput, Solana uses a unique hybrid consensus model of Proof of History (PoH) and Proof of Stake (PoS). It aims to improve scalability by processing transactions quickly and efficiently, making it popular for both developers and enterprise applications.

Polkadot (DOT): Polkadot enables cross-chain transfers of any type of data or asset, facilitating interoperability between blockchains. Its relay chain allows multiple parachains to process transactions in parallel, enhancing scalability. It also features a sophisticated governance system where all stakeholders have a voice.

Avalanche (AVAX): Launched in 2020, Avalanche is distinguished by its low latency for transactions and robust scalability options. Its consensus protocol is unique in the blockchain space, enabling high throughput and quick finalization of transactions. Avalanche supports decentralized applications and custom blockchain networks.

Cosmos (ATOM): Known as the "Internet of Blockchains," Cosmos is a network comprising many independent blockchains that can communicate through a protocol called Inter-Blockchain Communication (IBC). This design focuses on scalability and interoperability, with a strong emphasis on allowing blockchains to maintain sovereignty. 

Arbitrum (ARB): A leading Layer 2 scaling solution for Ethereum that uses Optimistic Rollups to increase transaction throughput and reduce fees while maintaining compatibility with Ethereum smart contracts and decentralized applications.

Base (BASE): Developed by Coinbase, Base is a Layer 2 Ethereum scaling solution aiming to offer secure, low-cost, and developer-friendly infrastructure for decentralized applications, utilizing Optimistic Rollups for scalability.

Polygon (MATIC): A multi-chain scaling solution for Ethereum that offers a variety of tools including Plasma Chains, zk-Rollups, Optimistic Rollups, and its own sidechain to improve scalability, interoperability, and usability of blockchain networks.

Optimism (OP): Another prominent Layer 2 scaling solution for Ethereum that employs Optimistic Rollups, focusing on reducing transaction fees and increasing throughput while ensuring compatibility with existing Ethereum applications and tools. 

TON (TON): Initially developed by Telegram, TON is a multi-blockchain platform designed to enable fast, scalable, and user-friendly decentralized applications and services, with a focus on high performance and usability.

Sui (SUI): A Layer 1 blockchain platform designed for high throughput and low latency, leveraging a novel consensus mechanism and parallel transaction execution to support scalable and efficient decentralized applications. 

Aptos (APT): A Layer 1 blockchain project built by former Facebook engineers, focusing on delivering high performance, scalability, and reliability through advanced consensus algorithms and modular architecture, aiming to support a wide range of decentralized applications.